CAIP-122: Sign in With X (SIWx)

Author Haardik, Sergey Ukustov
Status Review
Type Standard
Created 2022-06-23
Updated 2022-07-06


Sign in With X describes how blockchain accounts should authenticate and authorize with off-chain services by signing a chain-agnostic message parameterized by scope, session details, and security mechanisms (e.g. a nonce).

The goal of this specification is to define a chain-agnostic data model. When accompanied with chain-specific message forms and signing algorithms, along with chain-agnostic serialization format, this would allow for a self-custodied alternative to centralized identity providers, and improve interoperability across off-chain services for blockchain based authentication.


With EIP-4361, we got introduced to Sign in With Ethereum - which standardized an Ethereum-focused workflow to authenticate Ethereum accounts on non-blockchain services. This work is meant to generalize and abstract the Sign in With Ethereum specification, thereby making EIP-4361 a specific implementation of this specification, to work with all blockchains.

Additionally, with CAIP-74 we got a way to represent a chain-agnostic capability object (OCAP) by placing EIP-4361 message into CACAO container.

With this specification, we hope to extend CAIP-74 to support blockchains other than Ethereum and allow for the creation of OCAPs in a chain-agnostic way.


Abstract Data Model

We start with declaring an abstract data model, which contains all the requisite information, metadata, and security mechanisms to authenticate and authorize with a blockchain account securely. We call this data model SIWX.

The data model MUST contain the following fields:

Name Type Mandatory Description
domain string RFC 4501 dnsauthority that is requesting the signing.
address string Blockchain address, as defined by CAIP-10, performing the signing; should include CAIP-2 chain id namespace
uri string RFC 3986 URI referring to the resource that is the subject of the signing i.e. the subject of the claim.
version string Current version of the message.
statement string   Human-readable ASCII assertion that the user will sign. It MUST NOT contain \n.
nonce string   Randomized token to prevent signature replay attacks.
issued-at string   RFC 3339 date-time that indicates the issuance time.
expiration-time string   RFC 3339 date-time that indicates when the signed authentication message is no longer valid.
not-before string   RFC 3339 date-time that indicates when the signed authentication message starts being valid.
request-id string   System-specific identifier used to uniquely refer to the authentication request.
resources List of strings   List of information or references to information the user wishes to have resolved as part of the authentication by the relying party; express as RFC 3986 URIs and separated by \n.
signature bytes Signature of the message signed by the wallet.
type string Type of the signature to be generated, as defined in the namespaces for this CAIP.

Namespace Specification

A namespace specification MUST provide:

  1. signing algorithm, or multitude of those,
  2. accompanied by type strings that designate each signing algorithm,
  3. a procedure for creating a signing input from the data model specified in this document.

The signing algorithm MUST cover:

  1. how to sign the signing input,
  2. how to verify the signature.


As a general suggestion for authors and implementers, the signing input should be based on string. The string should be human-readable, so that the signing represents a fully informed consent of a user.

The proposed string representation format, inspired from EIP-4361, should be as such:

${domain} wants you to sign in with your **blockchain** account:


URI: ${uri}
Version: ${version}
Nonce: ${nonce}
Issued At: ${issued-at}
Expiration Time: ${expiration-time}
Not Before: ${not-before}
Request ID: ${request-id}
Chain ID: ${chain-id}
- ${resources[0]}
- ${resources[1]}
- ${resources[n]}

As an example, EIP-4361 directly conforms to this data model. Since EIP-155 chains can request personal signatures (EIP-191) or contract signatures (EIP-1271) in plaintext, an example message to be signed could be wants you to sign in with your Ethereum account:

I accept the ServiceOrg Terms of Service:

Version: 1
Nonce: 32891756
Issued At: 2021-09-30T16:25:24Z
Chain ID: 1
- ipfs://bafybeiemxf5abjwjbikoz4mc3a3dla6ual3jsgpdr4cjr3oz3evfyavhwq/

Other chains, however, for example Solana, cannot do plaintext signatures and require signing over raw bytes. As such, signing input for the data model could be created as a string, similar to EIP-4361 example above, that is represented as raw bytes. The signing input is then passed to Solana-specific signing algorithm. This should be defined in the Solana namespace for this CAIP specification.

Below is an example of the data model represented as a plain text similar Ethereum, and then converted to raw bytes.

Plain text representation: wants you to sign in with your Solana account:

I accept the ServiceOrg Terms of Service:

Version: 1
Nonce: 32891757
Issued At: 2021-09-30T16:25:24.000Z
Chain ID: 1
- ipfs://Qme7ss3ARVgxv6rXqVPiikMJ8u2NLgmgszg13pYrDKEoiu

Raw bytes (encoded as base64url for brevity).



  • As a chain-agnostic standard, SIWx should allow for authentication via blockchain wallet across non-blockchain applications regardless of which chain/wallet the user is using.
  • The application server MUST be able to implement fully functional authentication for as many users as possible without forcing a change to wallets
  • The model should be abstract enough to allow individual namespaces to represent the signing message as suitable for their chain, while allowing conformance with CAIP-74.

Backwards Compatibility

Not applicable.

Wallet Implementer Steps

Verifying domain binding

  • Wallet implementers MUST prevent phishing attacks by matching on the domain term when processing a signing request. For example, when processing the message beginning with "service.invalid wants you to sign in...", the wallet checks that the request actually originated from service.invalid.
  • The domain is expected to be read from a trusted data source such as the browser window.


  • EIP-4361: Sign-In with Ethereum
  • CAIP-74: CACAO: Chain Agnostic CApability Object
  • RFC 4501: Domain Name System Uniform Resource Identifiers
  • CAIP-10: Account ID Specification
  • CAIP-2: Blockchain ID Specification
  • RFC 3986: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax
  • RFC 3339: Date and Time on the Internet: Timestamps
  • EIP-191: Signed Data Standard
  • EIP-1271: Standard Signature Validation Method for Contracts

Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.


Please cite this document as:

Haardik, Sergey Ukustov, "CAIP-122: Sign in With X (SIWx)," Chain Agnostic Improvement Proposals, no. 122, June 2022. [Online serial]. Available: